Since justification consists in an interior sanctity and renovation of spirit, its formal cause evidently must be a created grace (gratia creata), a permanent quality, a supernatural modification or accident (accidens) of the soul. Theol., s.v. We have seen that Protestants claim the following three qualities for justification: certainty, equality, the impossibility of ever losing it. Möhler, "Symbolik", sec. In general it was precisely the denial of man’s free will in the moral order, and of the impossibility of his full cooperation with Divine grace that repelled so many followers of Luther. They had been conceived long before either by heretics of the earlier centuries or by isolated Catholic theologians and had been quietly scattered as the seed of future heresies. The strict orthodoxy of the Old Lutherans, e.g. This would logically imply in contradiction to the “unica causa formalis” of the Council of Trent, a twofold formal cause of justification (cf. According to this apparently correct opinion, the Epistles of both Apostles treat of different subjects, neither with direct relation to the other. Finally if, as Luther maintains, only the loss of faith (according to Calvin, not even that) can deprive us of justification, it follows that justification once obtained can never be lost. Quite distinct from this is the question whether the personal indwelling of the Holy Ghost, although not required for justification (inasmuch as sanctifying grace alone suffices), be necessary as a prerequisite for Divine adoption. VI, cap. JUSTIFICATION IN CATHOLIC TEACHING. According to this apparently correct opinion, the Epistles of both Apostles treat of different subjects, neither with direct relation to the other. The doctrine of justification by faith alone was considered by Luther and his followers as an incontrovertible dogma, as the foundation rock of the Reformation, as an "article by which the Church must stand or fall" (articulus stantis et cadentis ecclesia), and which of itself would have been a sufficient cause for beginning the Reformation, as the Smalkaldic Articles emphatically declare. “The Half-Melanchtonians” had succeeded in smuggling Synergism into the “Book of Torgau” (1576); but before the “Formulary of Concord” was printed in the monastery of Bergen (near Magdeburg, 1557), the article in question was eliminated as heterodox and the harsh doctrine of Luther substituted in the symbols of the Lutheran Church. (2) The Formal Cause of Justification.—The Council of Trent decreed that the essence of active justification comprises not only forgiveness of sin, but also “sanctification and renovation of the interior man by means of the voluntary acceptation of sanctifying grace and other supernatural gifts” (Trent, 1. c., cap. Martin Luther wants it that way, and says: `Papist and ass are the same thing: sic volo, sic jubeo, sit pro ratione voluntas ‘.”. Prof. Paulsen of Berlin was therefore justified in eulogizing Kant, who followed Luther in this matter, as the Philosopher of Protestantism". J. Mausbach, “Die Ethik des hl. The doctrine was justification by faith. Strigel) boldly attacked the Lutheran Klotz-Stock-und-Steintheorie (log-stick-and-stone theory), and tried to force from their adversaries the concession that man can cooperate with God's grace. Cardinal Pallavicini* (Hist. 283 sqq. Cf. For this reason, the doctrine of justification takes on eschatological meaning--i.e., it is placed in connection with the final act of the divine plan, or eschaton. Schleiermacher and Hengstenberg deviated still further from the old doctrine. Finally the Lutheran Church of Scandinavia has in the course of time experienced a "quiet reformation", inasmuch as it now, without being fully conscious of the fact, defends the Catholic doctrine on justification (cf. For according to the teaching of the Catholic Church the righteousness and sanctity which justification confers, although given to us by God as efficient cause (causa efficiens) and merited by Christ as meritorious cause (causa meritoria), become an interior sanctifying quality or formal cause (causa formalis) in the soul itself, which it makes truly just and holy in the sight of God. Schleiermacher and Hengstenberg deviated still further from the old doctrine. But what probably contributed most of all to the crumbling of the system was the rapid growth of Socinianism and Rationalism which during the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries gained so many adherents among the Lutherans. But since in reality it is an ethical form of sanctification by which even an infant in receiving baptism is necessarily made just and pleasing to God, there must be between the concepts of grace and of sin a metaphysical and absolute contradiction, which not even Divine omnipotence can alter and destroy. VI, cap. Remy Lafort, S.T.D., Censor. Without assurance of right standing before God, a person could never rest in God’s mercy and unmerited love. Cf. Original sin has so completely destroyed our likeness to God and our moral faculties in the natural order, that our will has lost its freedom regarding works morally good or bad, and we are consequently condemned to commit sin in every action. Justification denotes that change or transformation in the soul by which man is transferred from the state of original sin, in which as a child of Adam he was born, to that of grace and Divine sonship through Jesus Christ, the second Adam, our Redeemer (l.c., cap.iv: "Justificatio impii. 8. Mohler, “Symbolik”, §12). The Roman Catholic view on justification. According to the Council of Trent sanctifying grace is not merely a formal cause, but "the only formal cause" (unica causa formalis) of our justification. This absolution is based on Christ’s holiness which God imputes to man’s faith. 9-11): uncertainty (incertitudo), inequality (inaequalitas), amissibility (ammisibilitas). "Justification." There is only one thing that might possibly divest him of justification, namely, the loss of fiduciary faith or of faith in general. Since justification consists in an interior sanctity and renovation of spirit, its formal cause evidently must be a created grace (gratia creata), a permanent quality, a supernatural modification or accident (accidens) of the soul. Without assurance of right standing before God, a person could never rest in God’s mercy and unmerited love. By this, however, we do not assert that the "justitia Dei extra nos" is of no importance in the process of justification. MLA citation. From the Reformation perspective, justification For, even if it is not the formal cause of justification (causa formalis), it is nevertheless its true exemplar (causa exemplaris), inasmuch as the soul receives a sanctity in imitation of God‘s own holiness. zu der Frage nach dem Wesen der heilignachenden Gnade (Paderborn, 1910). The Council of Trent decreed that the essence of active justification comprises not only forgiveness of sin, but also "sanctification and renovation of the interior man by means of the voluntary acceptation of sanctifying grace and other supernatural gifts" (Trent, l. c., cap. Therefore Catholic official position on Justification is our justification comes from grace of God (Catechism of the Catholic Church # 1996) and Justification is acceptance of God’s righteousness through faith in … Of late, Fathers Denifle and Weiss have shown that Martin Luther was acquainted almost exclusively with the theology of these Nominalists, which he naturally and justly found repugnant, and that the "Summa" of St. Thomas and the works of other great theologians were practically unknown to him. Only such faith as is active in charity and good works (fides caritate formata) can justify man, and this even before the actual reception of baptism or penance, although not without a desire of the sacrament (cf. By declaring the grace of justification, or sanctifying grace, to be the only formal cause of justification, the Council of Trent intended to emphasize the fact that in possessing sanctifying grace we possess the whole essence of the state of justification with all its formal effects; that is, we possess freedom from sin and sanctity, and indeed freedom from sin by means of sanctity. Editor's Note: The following is the second entry in a new series on justification. By this, however, we do not assert that the "justitia Dei extra nos" is of no importance in the process of justification. According to Rosmini, there are two categories of sin: (I) such as God merely covers and does not impute (cf. Sin is merely cloaked and concealed by the imputed merits of Christ; God no longer imputes it, whilst in reality it continues under cover its miserable existence till the hour of death. Vol. The council rejected the doctrine of justification by faith alone and excommunicated those . The Lutheran (and Calvinistic) doctrine on justification reaches its climax in the assertion that “fiduciary faith”, as described above, is the only requisite for justification (sola fides justificat). Solid. Solid. This is not accurate, however. Latterly, A. Ritschl defined justification as the change in the consciousness of our relation to God and amplified this idea by the statement that the certainty of our salvation is further determined by the consciousness of our union with the Christian community. Augustinus, II (Freiburg, 1900); Pohle, Dogmatik, II (4th ed., Paderborn, 1909), 484-5556; Hefner, Entstehungsgeach. I came across a document called “Joint Declaration on the Doctrine of Justification” which seems to suggest that the Church has changed its teaching on justification by faith and works and is converging with Lutheran view of justification. Granderat.h (“Zeitschrift für katholische Theologie”, 1881, pp. 12). By this, however, we do not assert that the “justitia Dei extra nos” is of no importance in the process of justification. For, by stating that fiduciary faith alone suffices for obtaining both justification and eternal happiness, he minimized our moral faculties to such an extent that charity and good works no longer affect our relations with God. These, as freely bestowed gifts of God, cannot be regarded as formal effects of justification. Since God alone was able to free us from this great misery, He sent in His infinite love His only begotten Son Jesus Christ, Who by His bitter passion and death on the cross redeemed fallen man and thus became the Mediator between God and man. theol. Warnings of the Last Days From God | Christian Short Film "The Days of Noah Have Come" - … VI, can. We assert this of Protestantism in general; for the doctrine of justification as defended by the reformed Churches differs only in non-essentials from Lutheranism. Several great theologians have answered in the affirmative, as for instance Lessius ("De summo bono", II, i; "De perfect. In their explanation grace and sin exclude each other with the same necessity as do fire and water, although in both cases God, by a miracle of his omnipotence, could suspend the general law and force the two hostile elements to exist peacefully side by side. Kleutgen, "Theologie der Vorzeit", II (2nd ed., Munster, 1872), 254-343. THE CATHOLIC DOCTRINE ON JUSTIFICATION. Solid. Comparing Bible and Tradition they could not experience any serious difficulty in showing that fiduciary faith was an absolutely new invention and that the faith of justification was identical with a firm belief in the truths and promises of Divine revelation (l. c.: "illumque [Deum] tanquam omnis justitiae fontem diligere incipiunt"). In the Protestant system, however, remission of sin is no real forgiveness, no blotting out of guilt. ), and Hurter (“Compend. The Counter Reformation, or Catholic Reformation, began at the Council of Trent in . On 31 October 1999, the Joint Declaration on the Doctrine of Justification was signed in Augsburg, Germany, by the Catholic Church and the Lutheran World Federation. III de fide justif., sec. Declar. Solid. ; II, 465 sqq., 610 sqq.) Möhler, "Symbolik", sec. The process of justification (processus justificationis) As long as the sinner with the “arm of faith” firmly clings to Christ, he is and will ever remain regenerated, pleasing to God, the child of God and heir to heaven. Thus we need not wonder when later on we see Lutheran theologians declaring that the Sola-Fides doctrine, as the principium materiale of Protestantism, deserves to be placed side by side with the doctrine of Sola-Scriptura (“Bible alone”, with the exclusion of Tradition) as its principium formale—two maxims in which the contrast between Protestant and Catholic teaching very beginning and foundation is based on self-deception. It is a legal action in that God declares the sinner righteous–as though he has satisfied the Law of God. 1545. Bartmann, "St. Paulus u. St. Jacobus und die Rechtertigung", Freiburg, 1897). According to the Council of Trent sanctifying grace is not merely a formal cause, but “the only formal cause” (unica causa formalis) of our justification. By declaring the grace of justification, or sanctifying grace, to be the only formal cause of justification, the Council of Trent intended to emphasize the fact that in possessing sanctifying grace we possess the whole essence of the state of justification with all its formal effects; that is, we possess freedom from sin and sanctity, and indeed freedom from sin by means of sanctity. According to the Catholic doctrine, however, this freedom from sin and this sanctity are effected, not by two distinct and successive Divine acts, but by a single act of God. The Catholic Encyclopedia. 105, 117) admits that neither the Church in her official teaching nor the majority of her theologians ever sanctioned, much less adopted, the extreme views of the Nominalists. Möhler, "Symbolik", sec. ; 1884, 545 sqq.) This opinion was censured by the Holy Office (14 Dec., 1887), not only because without any reason it defended a twofold remission of sin, but also because it stamped indeliberate acts as sins (cf. . Solid. III, § 15: “Through the obedience of Christ by faith the just are so declared and reputed, although by reason of their corrupt nature they still are and remain sinners as long as they bear this mortal body.” This so-called “fiduciary faith” is not a religious-moral preparation of the soul for sanctifying grace, nor a free act of cooperation on the part of the sinner; it is merely a means or spiritual instrument (instrumentum, Greek: organonleptikon) granted by God to assist the sinner in laying hold of the righteousness of God, thereby to cover his sins in a purely external manner as with a mantle. The justification of Luther's faith, he thought, was the doctrine of justification by faith. Trent, sess. vii: "Non est sola peccatorum remissio, sed et sanctificatio et renovatio interioris hominis per voluntariam susceptionem gratiae et donorum"). Fiduciary faith was no longer considered a spiritual means to assist man in reaching out for the righteousness of God, but was identified with a disposition which is upright and pleasing to God. Although the connection between faith and works is not meritorious, it is certainly conditional, which echoes a catholic spirit. ", viii, 9 sqq. Justification (Lat. 208-58. According to Rosmini, there are two categories of sin: such as God merely covers and does not impute (cf. It is well known that Luther in his German translation of the Bible falsified Romans 3:28, by interpolating the word "alone" (by faith alone), and to his critics gave the famous answer: "Dr. Martin Luther wants it that way, and says, 'Papist and ass are the same thing: sic volo, sic jubeo, sit pro ratione voluntas'.". For if it be essential to fiduciary faith that it infallibly assures the sinner of his own justification, it cannot mean anything but a firm conviction of the actual possession of grace. ; II, 561 sqq. ; Denifle, Luther u. Luthertum in der ersten Entwicklung, I (Mainz, 1904); Ihmels, Die Rechtfertigung allein durch den Glauben, unser fester Grund Rom gegenuber in Neue kirchliche Zeitschrift (1904), 618 sqq. Over the coming months, the doctrine of justification will be subject to a great deal of scrutiny. In order to exclude the Protestant idea of a merely forensic absolution and exterior declaration of righteousness, special stress is laid on the fact that we are justified by God's justice, not that whereby He himself is just but that whereby He makes us just, in so far as He bestows on us the gift of His grace which renovates the soul interiorly and adheres to it as the soul's own holiness (Trent, l. c., cap. In The Catholic Encyclopedia. Considered as a state or habit (habitus justificationis), it denotes the continued possession of a quality inherent in the soul, which theologians aptly term sanctifying grace. seems to lie in the following distinction: the Divine adoption, inseparably connected with sanctifying grace, is not constituted by the personal indwelling of the Holy Ghost, but receives therefrom its full development and perfection. The formal cause of justification VI, can. Quite distinct from this is the question whether the personal indwelling of the Holy Ghost, although not required for justification (inasmuch as sanctifying grace alone suffices), be necessary as a prerequisite for Divine adoption. With what little right heretics in defence of their doctrine appeal to St. Augustine, may be seen from the following brief extract from his writings: "He who made you without your doing does not without your action justify you. This entire process receives its first impulse from the supernatural grace of vocation (absolutely independent of man's merits), and requires an intrinsic union of the Divine and human action, of grace and moral freedom of election, in such a manner, however, that the will can resist, and with full liberty reject the influence of grace (Trent, l.c., can.iv: "If any one should say that free will, moved and set in action by God, cannot cooperate by assenting to God's call, nor dissent if it wish. According to Rosmini, there are two categories of sin: Although it is a Catholic dogma that sanctifying grace and sin (original and mortal) do never exist simultaneously in the soul, there may be, nevertheless a diversity of opinion regarding the extent of this incompatibility, according as it is considered as either moral, physical, or metaphysical in character. 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